Define Transaction ?
A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user.
What is Read-Only Transaction ?
A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of each query executed in the transaction are consistant with respect to the same point in time.
What is a deadlock ? Explain .
Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically.
These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally.
What is a Schema ?
The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema.
What is a cluster Key ?
The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster.
What is Parallel Server ?
Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU environments)
What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ?
It consists of
one or more data files.
one or more control files.
two or more redo log files.
The Database contains
one or more rollback segments
one or more tablespaces
Data dictionary tables
User objects (table,indexes,views etc.,)
The server that access the database consists of
SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool)
SMON (System MONito)
PMON (Process MONitor)
LGWR (LoG Write)
DBWR (Data Base Write)
CKPT (Check Point)
User Process with associated PGS
What is clusters ?
Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster.
What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle Database ?
An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table comman (Ver 7.0)
What is a Database instance ? Explain
A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files.
The process can be shared by all users. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.
What is the use of ANALYZE command ?
To perform one of these function on an index,table, or cluster:
- To collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary.
- To delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary.
- To validate the structure of the object.
- To identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster.
What is default tablespace ?
The Tablespace to contain schema objects created without specifying a tablespace name.
What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile ?
The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user's session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user's session the amout of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of idle time for the user's session the allowed amount of connect time for the user's session.
What is Tablespace Quota ?
The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace.
What are the different Levels of Auditing ?
Statement Auditing, Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing.
What is Statement Auditing ?
Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.
What are the database administrators utilities available ?
SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables. Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.
How can you enable automatic archiving ?
Shut the database
Backup the database
Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file.
Start up the database.
What are roles? How can we implement roles ?
Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Creating roles and assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.
What are Roles ?
Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles.
What are the use of Roles ?
REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES - Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group.
DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT - When the privileges of a group must change, only the privileges of the role need to be modified. The security domains of all users granted the group's role automatically reflect the changes made to the role.
SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES - The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use). This allows specific control of a user's privileges in any given situation.
APPLICATION AWARENESS - A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application.
What is Privilege Auditing ?
Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.
What is Object Auditing ?
Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user.
What is Auditing ?
Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use.
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Define Transaction ?